The industry of making confectionaries (ειδη περιπτερου ), like numerous other industries, has altered considerably recently. Although the basic formulas have gone through minor modifications, the production modern technologies have altered considerably (this uses specifically to the techniques of developing little products and also floor tiles, as well as their product packaging).
At the start of this phase, it appears appropriate to mention only these adjustments, but much more on those later applied to specific dishes.
Different teams of confectionery items require details molding approaches to make sure that they can be covered and packaged in one of the most appropriate means offer for sale. Most likely the most successful development was the bread bar. These bars enable you to use cost-effective techniques of manufacturing, packaging and also display screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were obvious improvements in the product packaging – both in the materials made use of as well as in the sealing methods. Most of benches in order to make certain lengthy shelf life, to protect against insect damages and contamination call for safety packaging. We take into consideration these consider separate chapters.
We have actually currently thought about the production of delicious chocolate, and also for that reason it is clear that chocolate as well as complex glazes have a predominantly fatty basis, their wetness content is really low (usually less than 1%), as well as the ingredients are not in liquid service.
In several confectionery processes, the dissolving capacity of sugar (sucrose) is thought about separately or in mix with various other sugars, such as sugar syrup (corn syrup) as well as invert sugar. There are two primary teams of sugar confectionery products: a) products in which sugar is totally dissolved, and also b) items in which sugar is partly liquified, and also partially existing in the form of tiny strong crystals put on hold in solution. These items might be modified with other active ingredients (for instance, milk and also fats). The initial team includes hard candy, difficult and also soft milk sweets, toffee and most jelly sweets. The 2nd group consists of items such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and also nougat with a pronounced fine-crystalline framework.
Introduction confectionery production modern technologies
Listed below we will see that all the variety of textures gotten is an outcome of using various technical procedures and formulas, every one of which call for unique methods for the formation of individual items. Below we take a look at general technology issues, as well as see their particular usages in various other sections of this book.
Smearing as well as reducing
The device is outfitted with cooled rolls, which permit you to feed the product straight from the tool, where it is prepared, to the plate creating tools. After molding and lamination, home plates are fed to an air conditioning gadget, and then to standard cutting devices and spreaders. After that the products are polished.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is probably the oldest technique of producing bars (tiles) as well as specific items from plastic items such as fudge, nougat as well as various pastes. A confectionery product in a suitable plastic state, identified by its moisture, fat content or temperature level, is first fed to the rolls to obtain a plate of the required density. This plate is then fed to cutting gadgets to create large strips, which are after that cut into narrow tiles or bars. Presently, the hot product is fed to cooled down rolls, enabling to obtain multilayer plates. Home plates are continually cut into strips that pass through the (” spreading equipment)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or small pieces. An instance of such a process is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This method is made use of for the production of candies, fondant and also jelly sweets, some kinds of milk candies and also fudge, marshmallows as well as other products that can be gotten in fluid form.
Some products in fluid type may be formed at a temperature of concerning 150 ° C in a steel mold and mildew whose surface area is covered with a “lubricating substance”.
Pomadnye, želejnye candy, maršmellou.
These items are usually cast into cells developed in starch (see listed below the area “Fondant coverings”). An extra current advancement is the automatic rainfall and also extraction of fondant shells and some other confectionery products using metal mold and mildews (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), as well as the rainfall of sugar and also toffee into silicone mold and mildews (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky material that has distinct residential properties as well as is immune to fairly high temperatures, regular for the production of caramel confectionery.
This technique applies nearly solely to candy sugar and also some kinds of toffee. The usual flavorful sweets, sweets with a filler and also “toffee” are made.
The production concept is to cool the made syrup under regulated problems until it reaches a ductile state. In this state, the product is changed right into a sort of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the ended up items (normally of a certain form or with a pattern) are obtained from it. The resulting items are quickly sent out to the air conditioning cabinet and wrapping maker.
To get some sorts of caramel as well as crunchy sweets, a version of this approach is utilized, in which the harness acquired in a comparable method is fed to a cutting-wrapping maker, where with the help of high-speed round blades, little pieces are reduced from it that pertained to the wrapping device.
Extrusion and also molding bars.
The principle of extrusion, executed in the production of numerous non-food products, has been effectively used in the confectionery sector. The application of this process to the manufacturing of numerous products– from soft materials such as marshmallows and fondant sugary foods to very plastic nougat and milk delicious chocolates– is described in  In this instance, the product based on extrusion is fed to the electrical outlet nozzles with the help of numerous rolls or augers. The nozzle opening profile identifies the form of the end product, as well as numerous extruders are equipped with a variety of nozzles that develop harnesses that can be cut into bars or small pieces. In fig. 19.2 programs numerous rolls for extruders, and fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder cross section with a device for cutting off small pieces from the strands. In fig. 19.4 reveals the design of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of eating gum tissue and also chewing sweet.
The design of the NID bar extruder is a little different. The feeding is executed by grooved rollers in the same way as in various other extruders, but the material to be formed is fed to a 2nd account roller. The profiled surface of the roll is coated with fluoroplastic to ensure simple separation of the product and also is used to shape benches into the needed shape. The pins aid get rid of the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is possible to make multi-layer bars in which 2 layers are extruded at the same time, or bars with a body from one more confectionery product. Extrusion works well with other constant manufacturing and glazing techniques.
When extrusion confectionery must observe certain precautions.
Temperature level. The extrusion temperature level is of essential relevance, specifically in the case of milk candy and also nougat, the uniformity of which is very dependent on temperature level. Little changes in temperature can bring about huge adjustments in extrusion stress. For soft milk sweets, a temperature of 35 to 38 ° C is usually used, however much relies on the type of product, and also the specific temperature.
Tour conditions should be identified empirically. Low temperature levels as well as high pressures create ko of extruder safety plugs.
Splitting up of fat … If fat separates during extrusion, this signifies inadequate emulsification. Renovation is achieved when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is consisted of in the solution.
Devastation after extrusion … After extrusion, some products shed their form, and the strip, which is nearly round in cross-section, after a short time on the strip might come to be noticeably flatter. This results from numerous reasons:.
expensive a wetness web content;.
It was not emulsified fat as well as may be as well soft;.
the protein of any type of milk active ingredient is not properly distributed;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline structure has developed or has been ruined by excessive mixing after crystal formation. This defect can be very subtle, and in continuous fudge manufacturing, its look depends upon the moment the crystallizing lipstick is added before extrusion. It is feasible to establish the ideal conditions for a details equipment just experimentally. Companies concentrating on the production of extrusion devices have actually executed a huge quantity of research in the layout of machines for the extrusion of confectionery products of different consistencies. For some items – such as gummies and also chewing periodontal – the roll extruder is giving way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These modern technologies are described in other sections of guide.
The concept of panning is already explained in Chapter 5. There are two types of sugar rolling – difficult as well as loosened. With hard knurling, succeeding layers of powdered sugar as well as syrup are developed on the preferred body (as an example, nuts) as well as dried with warm air passing away between the used layers. Loosened knurling is accomplished in a similar method, however making use of chilly technology. Soft shells are made use of (for example, pasta, jelly, soft milk filling up), as well as the covering is constructed from sugar (or sugar) syrup and also powdered sugar. After getting to the desired size as well as weight of the covering, the candies are partially dried out and covered with polish. The process is completely mechanized, including loading and dumping the tanks, automated spraying of syrups (or chocolate), and also control of drying or cooling air to the tanks.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, sugar or corn syrup and also invert sugar is usually denoted in English by the word “creme” (lotion), yet some traditional items make use of the choice “lotion”, and in various nations it is called in different ways.
The fondant is prepared by liquifying sugar as well as sugar syrup (or invert sugar) in water and concentrating by boiling to a solution having regarding 88% DM. At ambient temperature level, this remedy is supersaturated with sugar as well as unsteady, as well as if it is rapidly mixed and also cooled, after that the excess sugar falls out of the solution in the form of tiny crystals. Hence, the fondant mass has a strong phase of sugar crystals suspended in a fluid phase consisting of a saturated service of “sugars”.
Without mixing as well as cooling down large crystals are formed. Pounding by itself gives disappointing outcomes, since a big quantity of latent heat of condensation is launched. If the whipped syrup is left hot, formation reduces and also succeeding slow-moving cooling results in the formation of big crystals. Fondant of high quality should be soft in uniformity.
Initially, lipstick was prepared utilizing only sugar, which was liquified in water as well as concentrated by boiling to concerning the degree of 88-90% ST. Given that the solubility of sugar at regular temperatures is just 67%, the syrup with a concentration of 90% is very unpredictable and takes shape upon rapid air conditioning, “providing” very large crystals.
To overcome this downside, an additive was used that created the inversion of a part of the sugar and also enhanced the total solubility – this made it possible to whip the syrup into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, much more ideally, tartar (tartaric acid) are made use of thus ingredients. The formation of invert sugar from sugar is reviewed in an additional phase, yet below we just keep in mind that such ingredients decompose part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, right into two monosaccharides, dextrose (sugar) as well as fructose. Fructose is a lot more soluble (concerning 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, as well as its presence with dextrose enables the concentrated syrup to be whipped right into a lipstick.
This approach of application of the additive is very unstable, given that the quantity of invert sugar formed varies substantially depending upon the purity of the sugar, the boiling time and the solidity of the water utilized. Best outcomes are gotten by including in the sugar syrup a certain quantity of invert sugar, prepared independently.
Lipstick, made from sugar as well as invert sugar, has a granular structure and also is very pleasant in preference (it is hardly ever used in contemporary confectionery production). Sugar (corn) syrup has actually changed invert sugar in lipstick formulations; it is much less wonderful, and the existence of complex carbs regulates the development of crystals as well as gives a more thick lipstick, which does not have a loosened (crunchy) texture.